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General & Laparoscopy Surgery

Laparoscopic or “minimally invasive” surgery is a specialized technique for performing surgery. In the past, this technique was commonly used for gynecologic surgery and for gall bladder surgery. Specialized instruments and a special camera known as a laparoscope are passed through the trochars during the procedure.


An appendicectomy is the surgical removal of the appendix, which is located in the right lower side of the abdomen. This operation is usually carried out on an emergency basis to treat appendicitis (inflamed appendix). This may occur as a result of an obstruction in part of the appendix. Another name for this operation is an appendicectomy.

Some common symptoms of appendicitis are nausea, vomiting, constipation and pain. The pain is initially felt in the centre of the abdomen and later moves to become a sharper pain in the right lower abdomen. The area is tender to the touch. Occasionally, some of these symptoms may be absent and it becomes necessary to investigate the abdominal cavity to make a diagnosis.

Problems associated with appendicitis :

Appendicitis occurs when the appendix is blocked and becomes infected due to an invasion of intestinal bacteria. There is no single cause, but appendicitis may be due to:

A bowel adhesion

Swelling of the lymphatic tissue of the appendix due to a viral infection

A foreign body

A faecalith (a small, hard mass of faeces), which causes blockage, inflammation and infection.

If appendicitis is left untreated, it may cause the appendix to rupture (burst). If the appendix ruptures, the infected contents flow into the abdominal cavity. This can cause a much more serious medical emergency known as peritonitis, which is inflammation of the membranes lining the abdominal wall and organs. Without prompt treatment, peritonitis can be life threatening.

Surgery is the preferred treatment for appendicitis. Delaying the operation (in the hope that the appendix will 'settle down') only increases the risk of suffering a ruptured appendix.


The surgery to remove the gallbladder is called a cholecystectomy (chol-e-cys-tec-to-my). The gallbladder is removed through a 5 to 8 inch long incision, or cut, in your abdomen. The cut is made just below your ribs on the right side and goes to just below your waist. This is called open cholecystectomy.

Minimally invasive (laparoscopic) cholecystectomy

During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon makes four small incisions in your abdomen. A tube with a tiny video camera is inserted into your abdomen through one of the incisions. Your surgeon watches a video monitor in the operating room as special surgical tools are inserted through the other incisions in your abdomen and your gallbladder is removed.

Next you'll undergo an imaging test, such as X-ray or ultrasound, to check your bile duct for abnormalities. If your surgeon finds gallstones or other problems in your bile duct, those may be remedied. Then your incisions are sutured, and you're taken to a recovery area. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy takes one or two hours.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy isn't appropriate for everyone. In some cases your surgeon may begin with a laparoscopic approach and find it necessary to make a larger incision because of scar tissue from previous operations or complications.

Traditional (open) cholecystectomy

During open cholecystectomy your surgeon makes a 6-inch (15-centimeter) incision in your abdomen below your ribs on your right side. The muscle and tissue are pulled back to reveal your liver and gallbladder. Your surgeon then removes the gallbladder. The incision is sutured, and you're taken to a recovery area. Open cholecystectomy takes one or two hours.


A cystoscope is a thin tube with a camera and light on the end. During a cystoscopy, this tube is inserted through your urethra and into your bladder so the doctor can see inside. Your urethra is the tube that carries urine out of your bladder. Images from the camera are displayed on a screen where your doctor can see them.

A cystoscopy can reveal several conditions, including bladder tumors, stones, or cancer. The following procedure to diagnose:


Enlarged prostrate

Noncancerous growths

Problems with the ureters (tubes) connecting your bladder to your kidneys

Cystoscopy can also be used to treat bladder conditions. Doctor can pass tiny surgical tools through the scope to remove small bladder tumors and stones or to take a sample of bladder tissue. Other uses include:

Taking a urine sample to check for tumors or infection

Inserting a small tube to assist urine flow

Injecting dye so kidney problems can be identified on an X-ray


Hemorrhoidectomy is surgery to remove hemorrhoids. You will be given general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia so that you will not feel pain.

Incisions are made in the tissue around the hemorrhoid. The swollen vein inside the hemorrhoid is tied off to prevent bleeding, and the hemorrhoid is removed. The surgical area may be sewn closed or left open. Medicated gauze covers the wound.

Surgery can be done with a knife (scalpel), a tool that uses electricity (cautery pencil), or a laser.

The operation is usually done in a surgery center. You will most likely go home the same day (outpatient).

There is a procedure that uses a circular stapling device to remove hemorrhoidal tissue and close the wound. No incision is made. In this procedure, the hemorrhoid is lifted and then "stapled" back into place in the anal canal. This surgery is called stapled hemorrhoidopexy. People who have stapled surgery may have less pain after surgery than people who have the traditional hemorrhoid surgery. But the stapled surgery is more expensive. And people who have stapled surgery are more likely to have hemorrhoids come back and need surgery again.

Doppler-guided hemorrhoidectomy is a procedure that uses a scope with a special probe to locate the hemorrhoidal arteries so that less tissue is removed. Some studies show that it is less painful but more long term studies are needed to compare it with other procedures.


GR Fertility centre provides uterus removal services. This procedure is called Hysterectomy.

Uterus can be removed for various problems, the commonest being Fibroids, DUB, AUB, Prolapse and Cancers.

Various routes of Hysterectomy :

Abdominal Hysterectomy

Vaginal Hysterectomy

Laparoscopic hysterectomy

Our expertise lies in Laparoscopic Hysterectomy where the patient goes home after surgery in few days.


Hysterectomy involves removal of the uterus. It is a permanent solution to uterine fibroids, but is associated with non-negligible mortality, and substantial morbidity with procedure-specific adverse effects and those associated with major surgery. Hysterectomy may lead to long-term psychological effects – depression and self-perceived loss of femininity. It takes some months to recover completely and return to normal activities. Hysterectomy rules out the possibility of future pregnancy, an important consideration given the peak incidence of UF in the 40-44 year age group and the social trend to postpone child-bearing.

Hysteroscopy should not be attempted if a woman is pregnant or has an active pelvic infection. It should also not be performed in women who have uterine or cervical cancer. In addition, obstruction (stenosis) of the cervical opening may make it difficult or impossible to perform hysteroscopy.

Inguinal Hernia

Inguinal hernia is hernia that occurs in the region of the groin. It sometimes could be present from birth (Congenital). It could be a direct type of hernia or Indirect type.

Symptoms :

The symptoms of the hernia are often related to the contents that protrude and also the duration. Pain occurs when there is adhesion of omentum or bowel to the defect. Bowel obstruction can occur with symptoms of vomiting and pain. Sometimes when the bowel gets caught the blood supply can get cut off and strangulation and death of bowel might occur.

Treatment :

Most inguinal hernias are treated Laparoscopically by a repair called TAPP. Another type of procedure for this is called TEPP. Both these techniques denote the type of approach to the hernia.


Mastectomy is an operation in which the entire breast, usually including the nipple and the areola, is removed. Mastectomy is usually performed as a treatment of breast cancer.

In general, women with breast cancer can decide whether to be treated with a lumpectomy or a mastectomy.

A lumpectomy is the removal of the cancerous breast tissue as well as a surrounding rim of healthy breast tissue. A lumpectomy is a breast-conserving surgery that is usually followed by radiation therapy (high-dose X-rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells).

In addition to removing the cancer from the breast and lymph nodes, surgery also provides important information about the "stage" of the cancer. The stage of the breast cancer (TNM) is based upon the size of the tumor in the breast (T), status of lymph nodes (N), and metastatic spread to distant sites (M).

Tonsillectomy & Adenoidectomy

A tonsillectomy is an operation to remove the tonsils.

An adenotonsillectomy is an operation to remove both the adenoids and tonsils.

The reasons for an adenotonsillectomy are usually snoring / obstructed breathing / pauses between breathing at night (sleep disordered breathing), frequent and severe bouts of tonsillitis or chronic tonsillitis.

It takes 10 to 14 days for children to recover from the operation. You can care for your child at home by giving regular pain relief (as advised by your doctor) and encouraging plenty of fluids.

Don’t give your child any aspirin or aspirin-containing medicines (such as Aspro, AsproClear or Codis). If you are unsure, check the label and see if the words aspirin or salicylic acids are mentioned. Aspirin may increase the risk of bleeding during or after surgery and may increase the risk of a serious and rare disease named Reye syndrome.

Bleeding from the operation site can be a complication. If this happens give your child some ice to suck. If it does not stop after 5 minutes or if there is a large amount of blood (more than 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls).

Umbilical Hernia

A hernia is a defect in the anterior abdominal wall through which abdominal contents like bowel or omentum slide through. An umbilical hernia occurs in the region of the umbilicus.

Symptoms :

The symptoms of the hernia are often related to the contents that protrude and also the duration. Pain occurs when there is adhesion of omentum or bowel to the defect. Bowel obstruction can occur with symptoms of vomiting and pain. Sometimes when the bowel gets caught the blood supply can get cut off and strangulation and death of bowel might occur.

Treatment :

Management of an umbilical hernia is always surgical. As the hernia is an anatomical defect, medicines will not help. Open surgery and key hole surgery have been advocated for umbilical hernia repair. In key hole surgery, the adhesions are released and the defect is repaired either with intra corporeal suturing or with mesh and tacks.

Laser surgery for Umbilical Hernia :

The Holmium Yag laser beam seamlessly cuts through adhesions that are present in an umbilical hernia. Bowel adhesions can also be carefully released. There is very minimal bleeding or scarring at the post op site which prevents further adhesions. Pain is also kept to a minimum with the laser.